Dealing with paths or pathnames is a common Bash Shell scripting task.
basename are unix programs that are very handy for dealing with pathnames.
Getting current path with
pwd (print working directory).
root@cinhtau:/var/log/apache2# pwd /var/log/apache2
Get last directory
root@cinhtau:/var/log/apache2# basename $(pwd) apache2
Get all directories except the last directory
root@cinhtau:/var/log/apache2# dirname $(pwd) /var/log
If you deal with symbolic links, you can use
realpath to get the absolute pathname.
pi@pelion /var/run $ realpath shm /dev/shm