Persistent Storage with Red Hat OpenShift on VMware

Persistent Storage with Red Hat OpenShift on VMware

Used:   oc v3.11.16  kubernetes v1.11.0+d4cacc0 

This article is a technical summary with my experience of the Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform (OCP). Starting with this article, I publish some stats, thoughts about the creative writing process. I got involved in a sophisticated storage problem with OpenShift. Under the hood, it is Kubernetes trying to allocate persistent storage from the VMware infrastructure. Understanding and troubleshooting the problems was a challenge. :scream:


In the stats section, you find information about the creative writing process and the problem domain.

  • Estimated reading time: 21 minutes, 45 seconds
  • 3261 words
  • 783 lines


What I cannot build, I do not understand. (Richard Feynman)

Stats for Geeks

Stats for Geeks is a fun section to illustrate that writing can be challenging but also fun if you are into technology and geek culture.

  • OCP is also an abbreviation for Omni Consumer Products, the megacorporation from the movie RoboCop.
  • OCP is an anagram for POC (proof of concept). :wink:
  • On the International Women’s Day :raising_hand:, I start writing this article. In our company nothing special. We don’t distinguish between female and male engineers.


  • Coffee: :coffee: 5
  • Tea: :tea: 2
  • Beer: :beer: 1

DevOps songs:

  • What Kind Of Man (The Odyssey – Chapter 1) by Florence + The Machine
  • Third Eye (The Odyssey – Chapter 9) by Florence + The Machine
  • No, No, No by Destiny’s Child

Entertainment during writing:

  • Hearthstone Battles: 1
  • Super Mario Kart: 1

Time spent

  • Time at work: 24 hours
  • Invested Research Time: 6 hours (unpayed)
  • Time writing: 10 hours (unpayed)

Technical Stats

The Server

# CPU Capacity 514,75 GHz
# Memory 2 TB
# Disk 23.4 TB
[root@master1 ~]# govc about
Name:         VMware vCenter Server
Vendor:       VMware, Inc.
Version:      6.5.0
Build:        8024368
OS type:      linux-x64
API type:     VirtualCenter
API version:  6.5
Product ID:   vpx
UUID:         5b5960d9-eddf-41be-99fc-61577c06cedb

Linux, Ansible and Docker

[root@master1 ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 7.5 (Maipo)
[root@master1 ~]# ansible --version
ansible 2.6.6
[root@master1 ~]# docker -v
Docker version 1.13.1, build 8633870/1.13.1

OpenShift, Kubernetes

[root@master1 ~]# oc version
oc v3.11.16
kubernetes v1.11.0+d4cacc0
features: Basic-Auth GSSAPI Kerberos SPNEGO
Server https://master1:8443
openshift v3.11.16
kubernetes v1.11.0+d4cacc0

Products and Technology

In a customer project, I am supporting the infrastructure team. A dedicated production server farm uses VMware to provides services for its customers. The OpenShift Container Platform runs on virtual machines to deploy Docker containers with Kubernetes. The production platform is highly available. The platform has three master nodes and multiple application nodes.

For our non-technical users a glossary for the beauty of distributed systems in a world full of containerised software.

TLDR; (too long don’t read)

OpenShift Container Platform

Bottom-up explanation:

  • Docker is the software to run your desired software in containers
  • Kubernetes orchestrates your containers to multiple nodes and ensures high availability with pods
  • The cluster state is persisted in etcd
  • OpenShift uses Kubernetes and Docker
  • The OpenShift Platform is running on virtual machines, provided by the VMware vSphere solution

Docker Terminology

  • Docker = computer program that performs operating-system-level virtualisation, run software packages in containers
  • container = A Docker container image is a lightweight, standalone, executable package of software that includes everything needed to run an application: code, runtime, system tools, system libraries and settings.

Kubernetes Terminology

  • Kubernetes (k8s) = open-source container orchestration from Google
  • kubectl = command line tool for Kubernetes
  • etcd = etcd is a distributed key-value store that provides a reliable way to store data across a cluster of machines.
  • pod = A pod (as in a pod of whales or pea pod) is a group of one or more containers (such as Docker containers), with shared storage/network, and a specification for how to run the containers.

OpenShift Terminology

  • Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform (OCP) = a production platform for launching Docker containers.
  • oc = OpenShift CLI

VMware vSphere Terminology

  • VMware vSphere (vsphere) = a cloud computing virtualization platform.
  • Virtual Machine = an emulation of a computer system
  • govc = vsphere command line interface written in Go
  • vmdk = virtual machine disk volume

Storage Architecture

Find below a brief overview of the storage architecture in the OpenShift Container Platform.

Storage Architecture

About Storage

Containers are stateless and ephemeral, but applications are stateful and need persistent storage. Data infrastructure software like PostgreSQL, Elasticsearch or Apache Kafka must store their data on persistent storage volumes; otherwise, we lose stored data after every restart, relocation or redistribution. Kubernetes manages storage in OpenShift. You can either invoke the OpenShift command line (oc) our use the Kubernetes command line (kubectl) to manage the underlying storage infrastructure.

About Storage High Availability

High availability of storage in the infrastructure is the responsibility of the underlying storage provider. The VMware vSphere platform provides several solutions for that. VMware adds this persistent storage support to Kubernetes through a plugin called vSphere Cloud Provider. Kubernetes provides many possibilities. See below an overview for VMware vSphere.

vSphere Storage for Kubernetes © VMware vSphere Provider

Storage Objects

We are dealing with the following terms:

  • volume = a logical volume
  • storage class = describe the class or quality of storage
  • pv = persistent volume
  • pvc = persistent volume claim
  • vmdk = virtual disk of VMware


  • A Kubernetes volume is different than a Docker volume!
  • In Docker, a volume is merely a directory on disk or in another Container.
  • The Kubernetes volume is an additional abstraction that outlives the containers in a running pod.
  • Kubernetes has a vast selection of volume types.
  • The volume of interest is the vsphereVolume

Storage Class

A StorageClass provides a way for administrators to describe the «classes» of storage they offer. Different classes might map to quality-of-service levels, or backup policies, or arbitrary policies determined by the cluster administrators. Kubernetes itself is unopinionated about what classes represent. This concept is sometimes called «profiles» in other storage systems.

Persistent Volume (PV)

In short:

  • admin (cluster administrators) uses pv to provide persistent storage for a cluster
  • shared across the cluster (project unspecific)
  • a PV can only be bound to one PVC
  • PVs are resources in the cluster

Persistent Volume Claim (PVC)

In short:

  • developer (OpenShift user) can claim space from a persistent volume
  • specific to a project
  • PVCs are requests for PVs and also act as claim checks to the resources
  • claiming more storage than the PV provides, results in failure


Since we are dealing with virtual disk, VMware provides several disk types:

  • zeroedthick (default) – Space required for the virtual disk is allocated during creation.
  • eagerzeroedthick – Space required for the virtual disk is allocated at creation time. In contrast to zeroedthick format, the data remaining on the physical device is zeroed out during creation. It takes the longest time of all disk types.
  • thick – Space required for the virtual disk is allocated during creation.
  • thin – Space required for the virtual disk is not allocated during creation, but is supplied, zeroed out, on demand at a later time.

Configure VMware vSphere for OpenShift

Ensure that your vcenter-user has all necessary permissions! Otherwise, you get for instance this kind of error messages:

[root@master1 ~]# oc describe pvc
Name:          pvc0001
Warning  ProvisioningFailed  persistentvolume-controller
Failed to provision volume with StorageClass "vsphere-standard": 
ServerFaultCode: Cannot complete login due to an incorrect user name or password.

We use govc to manage our virtual machines.


To setup govc, I use these setup instructions.

curl -LO https://github.com/vmware/govmomi/releases/download/v0.20.0/govc_linux_amd64.gz
gunzip govc_linux_amd64.gz
chmod +x govc_linux_amd64
cp govc_linux_amd64 /usr/bin/govc

For convenience in the later operations, we set up some default values. You can override them by passing the values in the command line interface.

# your REST API vSphere server
export GOVC_URL='vsphere.mydomain.ch'
# user with extended privileges
export GOVC_USERNAME='vcenter-user'
export GOVC_PASSWORD='vcenter-password'
# default data-center
export GOVC_DATACENTER='dc3'
# default data-store
# self-signed certificate

VMware Tools

Enabling VMware vSphere requires installing the VMware Tools on each Node VM. We check the installation.

[root@master1 ~]# yum search "VMware"
open-vm-tools.x86_64 : Open Virtual Machine Tools for virtual machines hosted on VMware

Check for package name

[root@master1 ~]# yum list installed open-vm-tools
Installed Packages
open-vm-tools.x86_64      10.1.10-3.el7_5.1     @rhel-7-server-rpms

The is a minor difference between the commercial VMware Tools and Open VM Tools extension. For server usage, the open-vm-tools are sufficient.

Enable UUID

Set the disk.EnableUUID parameter to true for each Node VM. This setting ensures that the VMware vSphere’s Virtual Machine Disk (VMDK) always presents a consistent UUID to the VM, allowing the disk to be mounted properly.

govc vm.change -e="disk.enableUUID=true" -vm="/dc3/vm/OpenShift/Master Nodes/master1"
govc vm.change -e="disk.enableUUID=true" -vm="/dc3/vm/OpenShift/Master Nodes/master2"
govc vm.change -e="disk.enableUUID=true" -vm="/dc3/vm/OpenShift/Master Nodes/master3"
govc vm.change -e="disk.enableUUID=true" -vm="/dc3/vm/OpenShift/Application Nodes/worker1"
govc vm.change -e="disk.enableUUID=true" -vm="/dc3/vm/OpenShift/Application Nodes/worker2"
govc vm.change -e="disk.enableUUID=true" -vm="/dc3/vm/OpenShift/Application Nodes/worker3"
govc vm.change -e="disk.enableUUID=true" -vm="/dc3/vm/OpenShift/Application Nodes/worker4"
govc vm.change -e="disk.enableUUID=true" -vm="/dc3/vm/OpenShift/Application Nodes/worker5"

To reboot the cluster do for each node a reboot. This example reboots master node 3.

[root@master1 ~]# govc vm.power -r=true master3
Reboot guest VirtualMachine:vm-5182... OK

Check if the UUID is ok. There is a known UUID bug.

[root@master1 ~]# govc vm.info master1
Name:           master1
  Path:         /dc3/vm/OpenShift/Master Nodes/master1
  UUID:         422bef48-a838-7d35-6ddd-883ec1501bad
  Guest name:   Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 (64-bit)
  Memory:       16384MB
  CPU:          4 vCPU(s)
  Power state:  poweredOn
  Boot time:    2019-03-09 10:22:35.770195 +0000 UTC
  IP address:
  Host:         s42

Verify in Kubernetes and VMware guest

[root@master1 /]# kubectl describe node master1 | grep "System UUID"
System UUID:                422BEF48-A838-7D35-6DDD-883EC1501BAD
[root@master1 /]# cat /sys/class/dmi/id/product_serial
VMware-42 2b ef 48 a8 38 7d 35-6d dd 88 3e c1 50 1b ad
[root@master1 /]# cat /sys/class/dmi/id/product_uuid


Installing with Ansible also creates and configures the following files for your OpenShift vSphere environment:

  • /etc/origin/cloudprovider/vsphere.conf
  • /etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml
  • /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml

Verify that you have all identical files on all nodes!

Provisioning Methods

To understand my difficulty I have to provide the basics. There are two methods for vSphere storage:

  1. Static Provisioning
  2. Dynamic Provisioning

Static Provisioning

This approach worked with minor adjustments to the given OpenShift examples. This process involves the cluster administrator and OpenShift developer.

Dynamic Provisioning

The vSphere Cloud Provider plugin for Kubernetes can perform step 1 and 2 and thus dynamically provision storage only with PVCs. To accomplish that we have to define a StorageClass definition. The administrator is not involved in this procedure.

This approach has given me headaches since there were multiple pitfalls and obstacles to overcome.

Static Provisioning

These steps are the standard procedure.

  1. Create a virtual disk.
  2. Create a persistent volume PV for that disk.
  3. Create a persistent volume claim PVC for the PV.
  4. Let pod claim PVC.

Create a virtual disk

As to layout, we need to create a virtual disk on the vSphere storage. Create a virtual disk with 10 GB disk space. Ensure that the volumes dir exists on the storage. As the vmdk name, I choose jesus.vmdk because of it always funny when the cluster admin tells me that he had found Jesus.

govc datastore.disk.create -size 10G volumes/jesus.vmdk

The disk name must comply to following regex.


Check the new virtual disk.

[root@master1 ~]# govc datastore.disk.info volumes/jesus.vmdk
Name:      volumes/jesus.vmdk
  Type:    thin

Create a Persistent Volume

We map the new vmdk to a new persistent volume.

Create the file vsphere-volume-pv.yaml with following content:

apiVersion: v1
kind: PersistentVolume
  name: pv0001
    storage: 2Gi
    - ReadWriteOnce
  persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy: Retain
    volumePath: "[ESX_OCP] volumes/jesus.vmdk"
    fsType: ext4
  storageClassName: "vsphere-standard"

Pay attention that the storageClassName is mandatory for us to make it work. We use the OpenShift CLI to create the persistent volume. OpenShift invokes Kubernetes internally.

[root@master1 ~]# oc create -f vsphere-volume-pv.yaml
persistentvolume/pv0001 created

Inspect the persistent volume:

[root@master1 ~]# oc describe pv
Name:            pv0001
Labels:          <none>
Annotations:     <none>
Finalizers:      [kubernetes.io/pv-protection]
StorageClass:    vsphere-standard
Status:          Available
Reclaim Policy:  Retain
Access Modes:    RWO
Capacity:        10Gi
Node Affinity:   <none>
    Type:               vSphereVolume (a Persistent Disk resource in vSphere)
    VolumePath:         [ESX_OCP] volumes/jesus.vmdk
    FSType:             ext4
Events:                 <none>

Create a Persistent Volume Claim

Create the file vsphere-volume-pvc.yaml with following content:

apiVersion: "v1"
kind: "PersistentVolumeClaim"
  name: "vinh"
    - "ReadWriteOnce"
      storage: "1Gi"
  storageClassName: "vsphere-standard"
  volumeName: "pv0001"

The claim name is vinh, and we map the claim to the persistence volume pv0001. Pay attention that we claim only 1 GB of 10 GB. That makes no sense, but it works. Requesting more storage than the persistent volume has, results to failure.

Create the claim:

[root@master1 ~]# oc create -f vsphere-volume-pvc.yaml
persistentvolumeclaim/vinh created

Check the claim (status pending):

[root@master1 ~]# oc describe pvc
Name:          vinh
Namespace:     default
StorageClass:  vsphere-standard
Status:        Pending
Volume:        pv0001
Labels:        <none>
Annotations:   <none>
Finalizers:    [kubernetes.io/pvc-protection]
Capacity:      0
Access Modes:
Events:        <none>

Check again (status bound, now usable):

[root@master1 ~]# oc describe pvc
Name:          vinh
Namespace:     default
StorageClass:  vsphere-standard
Status:        Bound
Volume:        pv0001
Labels:        <none>
Annotations:   pv.kubernetes.io/bind-completed=yes
Finalizers:    [kubernetes.io/pvc-protection]
Capacity:      10Gi
Access Modes:  RWO
Events:        <none>

We created a pv and claimed it with the pvc.

[root@master1 ~]# oc get pv
pv0001    10Gi       RWO            Retain           Bound     default/vinh   vsphere-standard             19m

[root@master1 ~]# oc get pvc
vinh      Bound     pv0001    10Gi       RWO            vsphere-standard   23s

Alternatively, output the information in YAML:

[root@master1 ~]# oc get pvc -o yaml

The response:

apiVersion: v1
- apiVersion: v1
  kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
      pv.kubernetes.io/bind-completed: "yes"
    creationTimestamp: 2019-03-09T15:23:13Z
    - kubernetes.io/pvc-protection
    name: vinh
    namespace: default
    resourceVersion: "23390760"
    selfLink: /api/v1/namespaces/default/persistentvolumeclaims/vinh
    uid: 4101be02-427f-11e9-8b17-005056ab11cb
    - ReadWriteOnce
        storage: 1Gi
    storageClassName: vsphere-standard
    volumeName: pv0001
    - ReadWriteOnce
      storage: 10Gi
    phase: Bound
kind: List
  resourceVersion: ""
  selfLink: ""

Dynamic Provisioning

The OpenShift Container Platform persistent volume framework enables dynamic provisioning and allows administrators to provision a cluster with persistent storage. The framework also gives users a way to request those resources without having any knowledge of the underlying infrastructure.

Storageclass Definition

To perform dynamic provisioning, we need a definition for a default storage. Therefore we use the annotation storageclass.kubernetes.io/is-default-class: "true". Check for a similar StorageClass definition.

[root@master1 ~]# oc get sc -o yaml  
apiVersion: v1  
- apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1  
  kind: StorageClass  
      storageclass.kubernetes.io/is-default-class: "true"  
    creationTimestamp: 2019-03-09T17:13:20Z  
    name: vsphere-standard  
    namespace: ""  
    resourceVersion: "23402534"  
    selfLink: /apis/storage.k8s.io/v1/storageclasses/vsphere-standard  
    uid: a369d9f1-428e-11e9-8b05-005056ab11cb  
    datastore: ESX_OCP
    diskformat: thin  
  provisioner: kubernetes.io/vsphere-volume  
  reclaimPolicy: Delete  
  volumeBindingMode: Immediate  
kind: List  
  resourceVersion: ""  
  selfLink: ""

Perform Persistence Volume Claim

Create a persistence volume claim in vsphere-volume-pvc.yaml:

kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
apiVersion: v1
  name: pvc0001
    - ReadWriteOnce
      storage: 2Gi

The describe shows our problem:

[root@master ~]# oc describe pvc
Name:          pvc0001
Namespace:     default
StorageClass:  vsphere-standard
Status:        Pending
Labels:        <none>
Annotations:   volume.beta.kubernetes.io/storage-provisioner=kubernetes.io/vsphere-volume
Finalizers:    [kubernetes.io/pvc-protection]
Access Modes:
  Type     Reason              Age               From                         
  ----     ------              ----              ----                         
  Warning  ProvisioningFailed  5s (x11 over 2m)  persistentvolume-controller  
  Failed to provision volume with StorageClass "vsphere-standard": No VM found

There are two significant bugs open with the dynamic provisioning:

  • https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/issues/65933
  • https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/issues/71502


For our troubleshooting we use jq - a JSON processor. We use it to extract only relevant information.

curl -LO https://github.com/stedolan/jq/releases/download/jq-1.6/jq-linux64
chmod +x jq-linux64
cp jq-linux64 /usr/bin/jq

Check Nodes

This oc command is identical with the kubectl command.

oc get nodes

Checking with kubectl all exisiting nodes in the OpenShift cluster and their respective roles.

[root@master1 ~]# kubectl get nodes
NAME      STATUS    ROLES          AGE       VERSION
worker1   Ready     compute        116d      v1.11.0+d4cacc0
worker2   Ready     compute        116d      v1.11.0+d4cacc0
worker3   Ready     compute        116d      v1.11.0+d4cacc0
master1   Ready     infra,master   116d      v1.11.0+d4cacc0
master2   Ready     infra,master   116d      v1.11.0+d4cacc0
worker4   Ready     compute        116d      v1.11.0+d4cacc0
worker5   Ready     compute        116d      v1.11.0+d4cacc0
master3   Ready     infra,master   116d      v1.11.0+d4cacc0

Check Provider-Id

We check for the provider id that should contain the UUID equivalent to the system UUID.

[root@master1 ~]# kubectl get nodes -o json | jq '.items[]|[.metadata.name, .spec.providerID, .status.nodeInfo.systemUUID]'

Patch Provider Id

As the output is null for the provider id, we are going to patch it manually.

Check the current node and memorise the system UUID.

kubectl describe node $(hostname)

Patch the node with the memorized UUID.

# on master1
kubectl patch node $(hostname) -p '{"spec":{"providerID":"vsphere://422BEF48-A838-7D35-6DDD-883EC1501BAD"}}'

Repeat that for every node. After the patch, the dynamic provisioning still didn’t work.

Check logs

Search in /var/log/containers/*.log for datacenter.go, vsphere.go and pv_controller.go. You only see those messages by increasing the log verbosity of the OpenShift platform. See below a prettified message stack of stderr.

{"log":"datacenter.go:78      Unable to find VM by UUID. VM UUID:"}
{"log":"nodemanager.go:414    Error No VM found node info for node master1 not found"}
{"log":"vsphere_util.go:134   Error while obtaining Kubernetes node nodeVmDetail details. error : No VM found"}
{"log":"vsphere.go:1160       Failed to get shared datastore: No VM found"}
{"log":"pv_controller.go:1464 failed to provision volume for claim default/pvc0001 
                              with StorageClass vsphere-standard: No VM found"}
{"log":"event.go              Event(v1.ObjectReference{Kind:'PersistentVolumeClaim', 
                              Namespace:'default', Name:'pvc0001', UID:'b063844c-3ffe-11e9-8fc9-005056ab11cb', 
                              APIVersion:'v1', ResourceVersion:'22900438', FieldPath:''): 
                              type: 'Warning' reason: 'ProvisioningFailed' 
                              Failed to provision volume with StorageClass 'vsphere-standard',: No VM found"}

Examine vsphere.conf

We could rule out the UUID bug. Check the cloud provider configuration.

[root@master1 ~]# cat /etc/origin/cloudprovider/vsphere.conf  
user = "vcenter-user"  
password = "vcenter-password"  
server = "vsphere.mydomain.ch"  
port = 443
insecure-flag = 1  
datacenter = dc3  
datastore = ESX_OCP 
working-dir = "/dc3/vm/OpenShift/"  
scsicontrollertype = pvscsi

The working-dir seems suspicious. Check it with govc:

[root@master1 ~]# govc ls /dc3/vm/OpenShift/
/dc3/vm/OpenShift/Master Nodes/
/dc3/vm/OpenShift/Application Nodes/

The problem is that there no recursive mechanism. Our vm nodes are in the sub-directories Master Nodes and Application Nodes. The directory name contains a space, which also seems problematic if you don’t use proper escapes. I just followed my hunch and let the VMware administrators move the vm nodes to the right directory. Therefore we had to shut down the whole OpenShift Container Platform first.

Retry claim

After the reboot, the dynamic provisioning works. The persistence volume claim exists and works.

[root@master1 ~]# oc get pvc  
NAME      STATUS    VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS       AGE  
pvc0001   Bound     pvc-548e75c0-4426-11e9-ac8a-005056ab11cb   2Gi        RWO            vsphere-standard   18h  
vinh      Bound     pv0001                                     10Gi       RWO            vsphere-standard   2d

If we look closer in pvc0001:

[root@master1 ~]# oc describe pvc/pvc-548e75c0-4426-11e9-ac8a-005056ab11cb -o yaml
Name:            pvc-548e75c0-4426-11e9-ac8a-005056ab11cb  
Labels:          <none>  
Annotations:     kubernetes.io/createdby=vsphere-volume-dynamic-provisioner  
Finalizers:      [kubernetes.io/pv-protection]  
StorageClass:    vsphere-standard  
Status:          Bound  
Claim:           default/pvc0001  
Reclaim Policy:  Delete  
Access Modes:    RWO  
Capacity:        2Gi  
Node Affinity:   <none>  
    Type:               vSphereVolume (a Persistent Disk resource in vSphere)  
    VolumePath:         [ESX_OCP] kubevols/kubernetes-dynamic-pvc-548e75c0-4426-11e9-ac8a-005056ab11cb.vmdk  
    FSType:             ext4  
Events:                 <none>

The virtual disk kubernetes-dynamic-pvc-548e75c0-4426-11e9-ac8a-005056ab11cb.vmdk was automatically created. Dynamic Provisioning has some advantages over static provisioning. For one as mentioned, you don’t have to bother about the underlying infrastructure. Depending on your point of view, another advantage is the automatic creation and deletion of the virtual disk and persistence volume through the persistence volume claim. Better ensure that you don’t need the data if you are going to delete a persistence volume claim.

Undo Provisioning

This provisioning explication was an experimental proof of concept. To undo the storage provisioning use following commands:

# delete claim first
oc delete pvc vinh
# delete pv
oc delete pv pv0001
# delete vmdk
govc datastore.rm -f volumes/jesus.vmdk
# delete dynamic provision claim
oc delete pvc pvc0001


The OpenShift Container Platform by Red Hat utilises Kubernetes and Docker. Running OCP on VMware vSphere is ok. Static Provisioning of persistent storage works. Dynamic Provisioning of storage is a little bit more challenging since you have to examine the interaction between Kubernetes and the vSphere Cloud Provider. Overall it feels like an Odyssey; you have to gather information on three major products and have to discover the logging data. In the end, I have learned a lot. Troubleshooting and analysing logs are essential. Without Elasticsearch it is a cumbersome task.


A collection of documentation resources: